Mitral Stenosis -- Adult
(Mitral Valve Stenosis—Adult)
|Mitral Valve Stenosis|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Sex: female
- Age: 30-50
- Difficulty breathing, especially during exercise and when lying flat
- Awakening short of breath in the middle of the night
- Chest pain, such as squeezing, pressure, or tightness—rare
- Sensation of rapid or irregular heartbeat
- Cough with exertion
- Coughing up blood
- Swelling of the legs or feet
- Frequent respiratory infections
- Lightheadedness, fainting
- Abnormal chest sounds, such as a heart murmur or snap
- Stretching of a vein in the neck
- Signs of fluid in the lungs
- Drugs that lower the heart rate and improve the heart's function
- Water pills
- Blood-thinning drugs
- Drugs to control heart arrhythmias
- Mitral valvulotomy—A surgical cut or enlargement is made in the stenotic mitral valve to relieve the obstruction.
- Balloon valvuloplasty—A balloon device is inserted into the blocked mitral valve to open or enlarge the valve. This may provide temporary relief of symptoms. However, the valve may become blocked again.
- Mitral valve replacement—This is the surgical replacement of a defective heart valve. This surgery is usually delayed until symptoms are severe or the patient can no longer be helped by other procedures.
- Treat strep throat infections promptly to avoid rheumatic fever, which can cause scarring of the heart valve. Always finish all of the antibiotics prescribed, even if you feel better before taking all of the doses.
- Avoid IV drug use
- Get regular medical care, including checkups and periodic electrocardiograms.
- Talk to your dentist and doctor about your condition before any medical or dental procedures. It is no longer recommended that you take antibiotics to prevent infections before procedures, but it may be necessary in some cases.
- If your valve problem was caused by rheumatic fever, talk to your doctor about antibiotic treatment to prevent future episodes of rheumatic fever.
- Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and drugs that speed up your heart rate. They will only worsen your symptoms.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Follow your doctor’s recommendations for exercise.
- Ask your doctor about cutting back on salt. This may help decrease the pressure in your heart and improve your symptoms.
- Monitor your blood pressure and inform your healthcare provider if you seem to be developing high blood pressure, which can worsen your symptoms.
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Premedication (antibiotics). American Dental Association's Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/p/Premedication-or-Antibiotics.aspx. Updated May 9, 2013.
Infective endocarditis. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/TheImpactofCongenitalHeartDefects/Infective-Endocarditis%5FUCM%5F307108%5FArticle.jsp. Updated April 12, 2013. Accessed May 9, 2013.
Fauci AS, Braunwald E, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2000.
Mitral stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 16, 2012. Accessed May 9, 2013.
Shipton B and Wahba H. Valvular heart disease: review and update. Am Fam Physician. 20011;63:2201.