- Acting as an antioxidant in the body
- Helping with immune system function
|Age Group||Recommended Dietary Allowance|
|1-3||6 milligrams (mg)||6 mg|
|4-8||7 mg||7 mg|
|9-13||11 mg||11 mg|
|14-18||15 mg||15 mg|
|19+||15 mg||15 mg|
|19+ lactation||19 mg||n/a|
Vitamin E Deficiency
- Neurologic symptoms, such as impaired balance and coordination
- Muscle weakness
- Retinal degeneration (thinning of the lining of the inner eye)
Vitamin E Toxicity
Major Food Sources
Vitamin E content
|Wheat germ oil||1 tablespoon||20.3|
|Sunflower seeds, dry roasted||1 ounce||7.4|
|Sunflower oil||1 tablespoon||5.6|
|Hazelnuts, dry roasted||1 ounce||4.3|
|Safflower oil||1 tablespoon||4.6|
|Almonds, dry roasted||1 ounce||6.8|
|Peanut butter||2 tablespoon||2.9|
|Corn oil||1 tablespoon||1.9|
|Mango, raw||½ cup||0.7|
|Peanuts, dry roasted||1 ounce||2.2|
|Broccoli, boiled||½ cup||1.9|
Populations at Risk for Vitamin E Deficiency
- People with a reduced ability to absorb dietary fat—Because vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, fat is required for its absorption. Some conditions that can cause fat malabsorption include Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, pancreatic enzyme deficiency, and liver disease.
- Patients after gastric bypass surgery
- Very low birth weight infants—These infants are usually under the care of a neonatologist, who will evaluate and treat the premature infant's exact nutrition needs.
- People who suffer from abetalipoproteinemia—This is a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism that results in poor absorption of dietary fat and vitamin E.
Tips for Increasing Your Vitamin E Intake:
- Sprinkle wheat germ on your cereal or oatmeal.
- Add sunflower seeds or nuts to a salad or stir-fry.
- Add mango or blueberries to yogurt for an afternoon snack.
- If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin E.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org
United States Department of Agriculture http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca
Health Canada Food and Nutrition http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/index-eng.php
Bariatric surgery. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated January 12, 2013. Accessed February 7, 2013.
Dietary supplement fact sheet: vitamin E. Office of Dietary Supplements: National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/. Updated October 11, 2011. Accessed February 7, 2013.
Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009 Jan 7;301(1):39-51.
Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46.
Stratton J, Godwin M. The effect of supplemental vitamins and minerals on the development of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2011 Jun;28(3):243-52.
Vitamin E. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated October 23, 2012. Accessed February 7, 2013.
Vitamin E deficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 27, 2010. Accessed February 7, 2013.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 02/2013 -
- Update Date: 02/07/2013 -