|Brain Trauma from Whiplash|
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- Motor vehicle accidents
- Fires and burns
- Other physical assault
- Fire, flood, earthquake, or other natural disaster
- Other shocking experience
- Multiple injuries
- Airway obstruction
- Breathing problems
- Heart failure
- Lung failure
- Vital organ damage
- Central nervous system injury
- Multiple organ failure
- Blood pressure measurement
- Ventilatory monitoring—breathing tests to determine whether breathing needs to be assisted by a ventilator or supplemental oxygen
- Electrocardiogram —to monitor heart rate
- Chest exam
- Abdomen and pelvis exam
- Exam of the extremities
- Neurologic exam
- Chest radiograph—to view the organs and structures within the test
- Abdominal ultrasound —to view the organs and structures within the abdomen
- CT scan —to view the organs and structures within the abdomen, pelvis, chest, and/or head
- Spine x-ray—to determine if there is damage to the spine
- Angiography —to identify arterial bleeding
- Other tests, depending on the nature of the injuries
- Assessment for psychological symptoms
- Resuscitation and/or stabilization—normalize vital signs, control blood loss, and restore organ function will be restored first
- Further surgeries and/or treatments—may need further surgeries and treatments
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy —to address ongoing psychological symptoms from the trauma
- Always use seat belts.
- Never drive or operate any equipment while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Certain medicines can be dangerous as well.
- Do not use a cell phone while driving.
- Keep poisons, medicine, and cleaning supplies locked up. Keep them away from small children.
- Teach children to swim. Teach all family members about water safety.
- Develop a fire safety plan.
- Make sure all alarm and fire equipment is up to date (eg, smoke alarms, carbon monoxide alarms, and fire extinguishers).
- If you have firearms in the house, make sure they are kept unloaded. Keep them in a locked location.
- Wear helmets while biking.
- Wear the right safety equipment for all sports and recreation activities.
- Wear appropriate protective gear when using power tools.
- Help prevent falls in the home. Install night lights, grab bars, and hand rails.
- Avoid putting yourself at risk for an accident, violence, or other physical trauma.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org/
Centers for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/
Emergency Medical Services for Children http://www.ems-c.org/
National Safety Council http://www.nsc.org/
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians http://www.caep.ca/
Trauma Management Group http://www.trauma.ca/
Behrman RE, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2007.
Fact sheet: trauma, shock, burn, and injury: facts and figures. National Institute of General Medical Sciences website. Available at: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/factsheets/trauma%5Fburn%5Ffacts.html . Accessed October 3, 2006.
Goldman L, Ausiello D., eds. Cecil Textbook of Internal Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008.
Majou R, Farmer A. ABC of psychological medicine: trauma. British Medical Journal website. Available at: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/325/7361/426 . Accessed October 16, 2006.
Marx, John A., et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine . 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc., 2009.
What is trauma? Hartford Hospital website. Available at: http://www.harthosp.org/trauma/trauma.html . Accessed October 3, 2006.
- Reviewer: Peter Lucas, MD
- Review Date: 10/2012 -
- Update Date: 10/11/2012 -