Enhancing Memory and Mental Function
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Brautigam MR, Blommaert FA, Verleye G, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 1998;5:425-434.
2 Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med. 2000;6:219-229.
3 Winther K, Randlov C, Rein E, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive function and blood pressure in elderly subjects. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:881-888.
4 Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA. A double-blind, placebo controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract (Tanakan™) in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr Med Res Opin. 1991;12:350-355.
5 Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytotherapy Res. 1999;13:408-415.
6 Allain H, Raoul P, Lieury A, et al . Effect of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects. Clin Ther. 1993;15:549-558.
7 van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:1183-1194.
8 Le Bars P. Conflicting results on ginkgo research. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2002;9:19-20.
9 Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:835-840.
10 Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al. The acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17:45-49.
11 Stough C, Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. Int J Neuropsychopharm. 2001;4:131-134.
12 Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;151:416-423.
13 Hindmarch I. Activity of Ginkgo biloba extract on short term memory [in French; English abstract]. Presse Med. 1986;15:1592-1594.
14 Warot D, Lacomblez L, Danjou P, et al. Comparative effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects [in French; English abstract]. Therapie. 1991;46:33-36.
15 Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba , ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to heathy young adults. Physiol Behav. 2002;75:739-751.
16 Wesnes KA, Faleni RA, Hefting NR, et al. The cognitive, subjective, and physical effects of a Ginkgo biloba / Panax ginseng combination in healthy volunteers with neurasthenic complaints. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33:677-683.
17 Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, et al. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba / Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;152:353-361.
18 Maher BF, Stough C, Shelmerdine A, et al. The acute effects of combined administration of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17:163-164.
19 Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 1991;41:644-649.
20 Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, et al. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4:121-134.
21 Sorensen H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res. 1996;57:959-968.
22 Sandberg F, Dencker L. Experimental and clinical tests on ginseng. Z Phytother. 1994;15:38-42.
23 D'Angelo L, Grimaldi R, Caravaggi M, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on the effect of a standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15-22.
24 Siegl C, Siegl HJ. The possible revision of impaired mental abilities in old age: a double-blind study with Panax ginseng [translated from German]. Therapiewoche. 1979;29:4206,4209-4216.
25 Kay GG, Viirre E, Clark J. Stabilized NADH as a countermeasure for jet lag. Presented at: 48th International Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine; September 17-21, 2000; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
26 Carmel R, Gott P, Degiorgio C, et al. Abnormal P300 event-related potentials in mild, preclinical cobalamin deficiency [abstract]. Int J Hematol. 2000;72(suppl 1):207.
27 Louwman MW, van Dusseldorp M, van de Vijver FJ, et al. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:762-769.
28 Benton D. Micro-nutrient supplementation and the intelligence of children. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001;25:297-309.
29 Schoenthaler SJ, Amos SP, Doraz WE, et al. Controlled trial of vitamin-mineral supplementation on intelligence and brain function. Pers Individual Differences. 1991;12:343-350.
30 Schoenthaler SJ, Amos SP, Eysenck HJ, et al. Controlled trial of vitamin-mineral supplementation: effects on intelligence and performance. Pers Individual Differences. 1991;12:351-362.
31 Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID. Vitamin-mineral intake and intelligence: a macrolevel analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med. 1999;5:125-134.
32 Benton D, Fordy J, Haller J. The impact of long-term vitamin supplementation on cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology. 1995;117:298-305.
33 Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, et al. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course. Brain Res Bull. 1999;48:203-209.
34 Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, et al. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Avit Space Environ Med. 1995;66:313-319.
35 Sun QQ, Xu SS, Pan JL, et al. Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999;20:601-603.
36 Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6:31-43.
37 Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein SL. A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognitive function in an older population: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:420-423.
38 Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Harman SM, et al. The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:2193-2198.
39 Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, et al. Chronic effects of Brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri ) on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:279-281.
40 Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156:481-484.
41 Nathan PJ, Clarke J, Lloyd J, et al. The acute effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy normal subjects. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001;16:345-351.
42 Agrawal A, Dubey M, Dubey G. Effects of Mentat on memory span, attention, galvanic skin resistance (GSR) and muscle action potential (EMG) among normal adults. Pharmacopsychoecologia. 1990;3:39-42.
43 Sharma AK, Agrawal A, Agrawal U, et al. Influence of Mentat (BR-16A) on memory and mental fatigue in cases of anxiety neurosis and depression. Ind J Cancer Res. 1990;3:27.
44 Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:61-71.
45 Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:365-371.
46 Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:85-89.
47 Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine . 2003;10:95-105.
48 Meguid MM, Shenkin A. Introduction: nutritional supplements and the quest to improve human performance—the need for the strictest standards and rigor when reporting clinical trials. Nutrition. 2003;19:955-956.
49 Smith R. Validity of Canadian studies: response of editor of BMJ. BMJ. 2004;328:465.
50 Duffy R, Wiseman H, File SE. Improved cognitive function in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of consumption of a soya extract containing isoflavones. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:721-729.
51 Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004;60:41-43.
52 Howes JB, Bray K, Lorenz L, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2004;7:70-77.
53 Rae C, Digney AL, McEwan SR, et al. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc R Soc Biol Sci. 2003;270:2147-2150.
54 Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, et al. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:669-674.
55 Hvas AM, Juul S, Lauritzen L, et al. No effect of vitamin B-12 treatment on cognitive function and depression: a randomized placebo controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2004;81:269-273.
56 Malouf R, Grimley EJ. The effect of vitamin B6 on cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;CD004393
57 Burns NR, Bryan J, Nettelbeck T, et al. Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print].
58 Elsabagh S, Hartley DE, File SE, et al. Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:173-181.
59 Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al. The acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17:45-49.
60 Mattes RD, Pawlik MK. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on alertness and chemosensory function in healthy adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:81-90.
61 Elsabagh S, Hartley DE, Ali O, et al. Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Mar 1. [Epub ahead of print].
62 Burns NR, Bryan J, Nettelbeck T, et al. Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print].
63 Polich J, Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba /vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001;16:409-416.
64 Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE, et al. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci. 2005;7:325-333.
65 Nathan PJ, Tanner S, Lloyd J, et al. Effects of a combined extract of Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:91-96.
66 Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE, et al. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutr Neurosci. 2005;7:325-333.
67 Wolters M, Hickstein M, Flintermann A, et al. Cognitive performance in relation to vitamin status in healthy elderly German women-the effect of 6-month multivitamin supplementation. Prev Med. 2005;41:253-259
68 Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, et al. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:972-978.
69 McMorris T, Harris RC, Swain J, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]
70 Kennedy DO, Pace S, Haskell C, et al. Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibiting Sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]
71 Benton D, Griffiths R, Haller J, et al. Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997;129:66-71.
72 Markus CR, Jonkman LM, Lammers JH, et al. Evening intake of alpha-lactalbumin increases plasma tryptophan availability and improves morning alertness and brain measures of attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:1026-1033.
73 Markus CR, Olivier B, de Haan EH, et al. Whey protein rich in alpha-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:1051-1056.
74 Schmitt JA, Jorissen BL, Dye L, et al. Memory function in women with premenstrual complaints and the effect of serotonergic stimulation by acute administration of an alpha-lactalbumin protein. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:375-384
75 Alhaj HA, Massey AE, McAllister-Williams RH, et al. Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print]
76 Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, et al. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Int J Neurosci. 2003;113:15-38.
77 Decker MW, Majchrzak MJ, Arneric SP. Effects of lobeline, a nicotinic receptor agonist, on learning and memory. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993;45:571-576.
78 Da Silva AL, Piato AL, Bardini S, et al. Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice. J Etnopharmacol. 2004;95:199-203.
79 Siqueira IR, Fochasatto C, da Silva AL, et al. Ptychopetalum olacoides, a traditional Amazonien “nerve tonic”, possesses anticholinesterase activity. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:645-50.
80 Abe K, Saito H. Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation. Phytother Res. 2000;14:149-52.
81 Crews WD, Harrison DW, Griffin ML, et al. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:305-309.
82 Pathansali R, Mangoni AA, Creagh-Brown B, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on psychomotor performance and hemorheology in healthy elderly subjects. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2005 Dec 13. [Epub ahead of print]
83 Marshall JR, Sakr W, Wood D, et al. Design and Progress of a Trial of Selenium to Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Joosten LW, et al. Effect of oral vitamin B-12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B-12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:361-370.
84 Maylor EA, Simpson EE, Secker DL, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the ZENITH study. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:752-760.
85 Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, et al. A randomized trial of vitamin E supplementation and cognitive function in women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2462-2468.
86 Crook TH, Ferris SH, Alvarez XA, et al. Effects of N-PEP-12 on memory among older adults. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:97-100.
87 Balk EM, Raman G, Tatsioni A, et al. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:21-30.
88 Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369:208-216.
89 Ho SC, Chan AS, Ho YP, et al. Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. 2007 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
90 Murray-Kolb LE, Beard JL. Iron treatment normalizes cognitive functioning in young women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:778-787.
91 Fournier LR, Ryan Borchers TA, Robison LM, et al. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007;11:155-164.
92 Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, et al. Acute cognitive effects of standardised ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]
93 McNeill G, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Effect of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation on cognitive function in men and women aged 65 years and over: a randomised controlled trial. Nutr J. 2007 May 2. [Epub ahead of print]
94 Kennedy DO, Jackson PA, Haskell CF, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance following single doses of 120 mg Ginkgo biloba extract administered to healthy young volunteers. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]
95 The NEMO Study Group. Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1082-1093.
96 Grodstein F, Kang JH, Glynn RJ, et al. A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: The Physicians' Health Study II. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2184-2190.
97 Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP, et al. L-carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1738-1744.
98 Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, et al. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana ( Paullinia cupana ) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. PharmacolBiochem Behav. 2004;79:401–411.
99 Galduroz JC, Carlini EA. The effects of long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers. Rev Paul Med. 1996;114:1073–1078.
100 Galduroz JC, Carlini Ede A. Acute effects of the Paulinia cupana, "guarana" on the cognition of normal volunteers. Rev Paul Med. 1994;112:607–611.
101 Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Robertson B, et al. Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guarana ( Paullinia cupana ). Appetite. 2007 Oct 30.
102 Ataka S, Tanaka M, Nozaki S, et al. Effects of oral administration of caffeine and D-ribose on mental fatigue. Nutrition. 2008 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print]
103 Wattanathorn J, Mator L, Muchimapura S, et al. Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Dec 4.
104 van Uffelen JG, Chinapaw MJ, van Mechelen W, et al. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2008 Feb 28.
105 Scholey AB, Tildesley NT, Ballard CG, et al. An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention in healthy older volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Mar 19.
106 Kritz-Silverstein D, von Muhlen D, Laughlin GA, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and quality of life: the DHEA and Well-Ness (DAWN) trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 May 14.
107 Rawson ES, Lieberman HR, Walsh TM, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. 2008 May 15.
108 Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, et al. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]
109 Kang JH, Cook N, Manson J, Buring JE, Albert CM, Grodstein F. A trial of B vitamins and cognitive function among women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88:1602-10.
110 Makrides M, Gibson RA, McPhee AJ, et al. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;304(15):1675-1683.
111 Geng J, Dong J, Ni H, et al. Ginseng for cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD007769.
112 van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, et al. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology. 2008;71:430-438.
113 Andreeva VA, Kesse-Guyot E, Barberger-Gateau P, Fezeu L, Hercberg S, Galan P. Cognitive function after supplementation with B vitamins and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: ancillary findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(1):278-286.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -